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الموضوع: register متجدد

  1. #1

    الصورة الرمزية عشق اليمن
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Oct 2011
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    157

    register متجدد

    In any human language we have 2 types of language
    Spoken: conversation, presentation, sermons, speeches-TV shows- commercials, lectures)
    Each kind has it one linguistic feature
    Spoken language
    A_ Conversation in conversation we have two people or more)
    e.g.: How are you? Fine
    Answer with one word short (we use short answer "fine)
    We use informal language e.g.: I'nt wannat cu
    B_ sermons: certen( ) way in taken especially vocabulary then the person start with specific words from Quran Hadeeth like ( In the Name of Allah, or sister and brother )the the speaker will start explained the speech or the kind of speech
    In the sermons we usually use cite then we explain) )
    C_ Speech : use certain words as ( ladies and gentlemen )social collection (situation)
    D- commercials: we use the imperative to attract people to buy something e.g. enjoy your life with >>>>
    Q_ why are these types changing?
    Because each types depends on its situation
    Written language
    *Letters: when we start we use special words and style like (address – then Dear and body of massage
    *poetry: using special words (it's imagination) like
    Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
    *Articles: we use opining statement headlines and date
    *Novels: In novels we have plot characters, and description people or situation
    Summary
    In other words: language is used in two or more types: spoken and written. The spoken includes conversation, sermons etc.
    The written parts in clues note. Noel, poetry, letter, etc.
    Each of these types has could be study or analyze from three perspectives: - Register, Genre and style.
    How do we analyze text?
    We examine the linguistics characterize that are pervasive; that is the roles of language
    In the text: the function of the text, in the event is the text spoken or written than we look at the situation in which the text, in the text is used, also we look subject matter (what is happening in the event ) what is it that the participant are involved in
    Finally, we analyze\ look\ study the communicative purpose
    What is the relations of the participant?
    …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………….
    Register
    *In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular social setting
    * Some prefer to restrict the domain of the term "register" to a specific vocabulary
    * In linguistic analysis , different styles of language are technically called register. Register refers to properties within a language variety that associates that language with a given situation.
    *. The linguist Michael Halliday defines register by emphasizing its semantic patterns and context. For Halliday, register is determined by what is talking place, who is taking part and what part the language is playing
    * Halliday places great emphasis on the social context of register and distinguishes register from dialect, which is a variety according to user, in the sense that each speaker uses one variety and uses it all the time, and not, as is register, a variety according to use, in the sense that each speaker has a range of varieties and chooses between them at different times
    *The focus is on the way language is used in particular situation, such as legalese or motherese, the language of a biology research lab of a news report, or of the bedroom.
    M.AK Halliday and R. Hasan ( 1976) interpret ' register' as the linguistic features wish are typically associated with a configuration of situational features- with particular values of the field mode and tenor.
    * In general terms, a register is a variety a associated with a particular situation of use (including particular communicative particular situation of use (including particular communicative purposes

    How to analysis
    What kind of text it is ( book , story …….. etc)
    To describe purposive linguistic feature
    !) is important to note the situation characteristics of conversation that distinguish it from other registers. Face to face conversation requires direct interaction between at least two people who are together in the same place at the same time
    2) describe the typical (pervasive ) "the common linguistic feature " linguistic feature if conversation
    3) is interpret the relationship between situation characteristics and pervasive linguistic features in functional terms.
    when we analyze a text perspective we examine the
    1) situation of text
    2) purpose
    3) conventional structure a text such as (the beginning and ending of a letter)
    In other words the genre perspective does not look on to the linguistic feature of text
    it's mainly ( only) considered with textual stricture
    the style perspective focuses on the use of linguistic feature but without considering their function in a situation>
    Rather it examine the aesthetic preferences uses by writers on found on certain periods.
    thus the register could be used to analyze and text.
    Mono = one
    Di = two
    tri = three
    why are we have analyzed a text
    1) To understand the differences among a text
    2) To have a better knowledge of a language use.
    3) To be a ware of how language is use , how others use a language , and where is used
    we can user it deal a language we can use it and could translate it
    when we come to analyze a text from a register prospective we must limit our focus of our analyze if we want to analyze the text book of the faculty of languages this is limit it to the text book of department of translation but it is still to wide , so we must limit it to text book of register legal translation etc.
    Register are a variety of a language according to uses , a not to user but dialect s are a variety a language a according to user.
    register____________________ use
    dialect -----------------user
    register are governed by the situation the function of linguistic feature and communicative purpose of a text but dialect are governed by social or regeneral factors, social class include working class
    e.g
    a black man say: you was , we was , he aint.
    and we hear someone say

    I don't have no money ( it is wrong in grammar but in dialect is right
    but if I say in Arabic
    )ادفئو المساجين)بلغه قريش تعني ادفئوهم ولكن في لغه اهل نجد تعني ادفنوهم اي اقتلوهم
    this is register because it' s change the meaning so if it change the meaning it is register but if it's not change the meaning it's dialect
    In dialect lexical and grammatical feature and differences but they don't change the meaning.
    for example : If we said :soft, pop- drink , soda- child , kid
    apartment . this is so because this linguistic feature are not functional they are conventional they don't change or effect the meaning but in a register the linguistic feature are functional they change or effect the meaning
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي
    بس وش لي في حلاتك دام فيهـا ترخصيـن
    حشمة البنـت وحياهـا والكرامـة يلفتـون

  2. #2

    الصورة الرمزية عشق اليمن
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Oct 2011
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    رد: register متجدد

    1)The register specific
    2)Culture of task
    *How does the culture affect of the meaning voice?
    e.g
    the word prayer in are culture when we say I am praying.
    It is not like our praying and fasting when we analyze a variety we must look for register marker
    *what is a register marker?
    A register marker is specific structure that exists that is found in one register but not in another.
    e.g
    سمعت تلاوه جميله
    Register marker
    كلمه تلاوة لا تستخدم إلا مع القرآن ليس لا قراءه أخرى
    شطرنج_____ لا نقول كش ملك لا في حاله واحده فقط وهو __________register marker
    But cannot be used in another situations so checkmate : is register marker
    *A register marker are pervasive
    *A register marker is while pervasive and frequent
    أعاده من البداية إلى النهاية _
    *Genre------------- marker : are pervasive while genera--------------- are not and also are register makers are frequent but genera----------------- maker are occur many times in variety while genera------------ markers are occur once.
    *genre markers only use one if it re tit a register marker.
    إي انه ------------------- وتقال مره واحده ولا تعاد مره أخرى
    e.g
    All rise, have you reached a verdict?
    We find the defendant ___________
    e.g.
    Dear Sir----------, the one beginning and one ending used to begin with message. ……………………………….
    e.g.
    ياالهي Heavenly father ---------------------
    بالله / مناشده …………………….. Appeal
    أمين Amen …….
    بعد الدعاء لا تقول لا مره واحده
    e.g.
    Best wishes, she's, sincerely, talk to you latter, used to end an e-mail massage
    *style feature are pervasive.
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي
    بس وش لي في حلاتك دام فيهـا ترخصيـن
    حشمة البنـت وحياهـا والكرامـة يلفتـون

  3. #3

    الصورة الرمزية عشق اليمن
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Oct 2011
    المشاركات
    328
    معدل تقييم المستوى
    157

    رد: register متجدد

    Register Analysis
    In any human language we have 2 types of language written and spoken
    1)Spoken: conversation, presentation, sermons, speeches-TV shows- commercials, lectures)
    Each kind has it one linguistic feature
    Spoken language
    A_ We use conversation to communicate Conversation in conversation we have two people or more, There are two or more pronoun first and second also in conversation we don't have completed sentence.
    في المحادثة يجب ان يكون شخصان او أكثر ولا يجب ان تكون جمله تامة
    e.g.: How are you? Fine
    Answer with one word short (we use short answer "fine)
    We use informal language e.g.: I'nt wannat cu
    B_ sermons: certain way in taken especially vocabulary then the person start with specific words from Quran Hadeeth like ( In the Name of Allah, or sister and brother )the the speaker will start explained the speech or the kind of speech ( في الخطبة تستخدم كلمات خاصة وقد يقتبس من القران الكريم او الحديث ثم يأتي لشرحها )
    In the sermons we usually use cite then we explain) )
    C_ Speech : use certain words as ( ladies and gentlemen )social collection (situation) ( الخطبة السياسية تستخدم كلمات خاصة)
    D- commercials: we use the imperative to attract people to buy something e.g. enjoy your life with
    إعلانات يستخدم أفعال الأمر لجذب الناس فيه
    Q_ why are these types changing?
    Because each types depends on its situation تتغير لأنها تعتمد على الحالة
    2)Written language
    *Letters: when we start we use special words and style like (address – then Dear and body of massage ) نستخدم في البدايه كلمات خاصة وشكل خاص كــــــــــ
    *poetry: using special words (it's imagination) like نستخدم كلمات خاصة (خياليه )
    Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
    *Articles: we use opining statement headlines and date
    *Novels: In novels we have plot characters, and description people or situation
    *Summary * editorials * blogs
    In other words: language is used in two or more types: spoken and written. The spoken includes conversation, sermons etc.
    The written parts in clues note. Noel, poetry, letter, etc.
    Each of these types has could be study or analyze from three perspectives: - Register, Genre and style.
    How do we analyze text?
    We examine the linguistics characterize that are perspective; that is the roles of language قواعد تحليل علم ألغه
    *In the text: the function of the text, وظيفة النص
    in the event is the text spoken or written حاله كان النص مكتوب او منطوق
    (this is mood )
    *Than we look at the situation in which the text, in the text is used. النظر الى حال النص لماذا يستخدم
    * also we look subject matter (what is happening in the event ) what is it that the participant are involved in and we call this field ثم نرى ما هو الحدث ومن هم المشاركون في النص
    *Finally, we analyze\ look\ study the communicative purpose ما هو غرض النص
    What is the relations of the participant? And we call this tenor وما هو العلاقة بين المشاركين
    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي
    بس وش لي في حلاتك دام فيهـا ترخصيـن
    حشمة البنـت وحياهـا والكرامـة يلفتـون

  4. #4

    الصورة الرمزية عشق اليمن
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Oct 2011
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    328
    معدل تقييم المستوى
    157

    رد: register متجدد

    كامل من البدايه الى النهايه



    Register Analysis
    What is the meaning of word register?
    Linguistics the type of language that you use in a particular situation or when communication with a particular group of people
    دراسة أنواع ألغه التي تستخدم في مواضع معنية أو في تواصل بين مجموعه معينه من الناس
    In any human language we have 2 types of language written and spoken
    1)Spoken: conversation, presentation, sermons, speeches-TV shows- commercials, lectures)
    Each kind has it one linguistic feature
    Spoken language
    A_ We use conversation to communicate Conversation in conversation we have two people or more, There are two or more pronoun first and second also in conversation we don't have completed sentence.
    في المحادثة يجب ان يكون شخصان او أكثر ولا يجب ان تكون جمله تامة
    e.g.: How are you? Fine
    Answer with one word short (we use short answer "fine)
    We use informal language e.g.: I'nt wannat cu
    B_ sermons: certain way in taken especially vocabulary then the person start with specific words from Quran Hadeeth like ( In the Name of Allah, or sister and brother )the the speaker will start explained the speech or the kind of speech
    ( في الخطبة تستخدم كلمات خاصة وقد يقتبس من القران الكريم او الحديث ثم يأتي لشرحها )
    In the sermons we usually use cite then we explain) )
    C_ Speech : use certain words as ( ladies and gentlemen )social collection (situation)
    ( الخطبة السياسية تستخدم كلمات خاصة)
    D- commercials: we use the imperative to attract people to buy something e.g. enjoy your life with ……..
    In conversation we should have sender and recipien مستقبل ومرسل
    In feature of conversation.
    1) We must have two or more people لابد ان يكون فيه عدت أشخاص
    2) Two types of pronuns such as ( I- you ) بضرورة ان يكون هناك ضميرا كـــ
    3) Don't have complete sentences (short) fine ليس مهم ان تكون جمله تامه
    4) We have informal language ( yes – yeah ) تستخدم فيه الغه الغير رسميه
    Q_ why are these types changing?
    Because each types depends on its situation تتغير لأنها تعتمد على الحالة
    2)Written language
    *Letters: when we start we use special words and style like (address – then Dear and body of massage ) نستخدم في البدايه كلمات خاصة وشكل خاص كــــــــــ
    *poetry: using special words (it's imagination) like نستخدم كلمات خاصة (خياليه )
    Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
    *Articles: we use opining statement headlines and date
    *Novels: In novels we have plot characters, and description people or situation
    * editorials: a newspaper articles in which the editor gives their opinion on an issue in the news: leader,
    *Summary * blogs
    In other words: language is used in two or more types: spoken and written. The spoken includes conversation, sermons etc.
    The written parts in clues note. Noel, poetry, letter, etc.
    Each of these types has could be study or analyze from three perspectives: - Register, Genre and style.
    How do we analyze text?
    We examine the linguistics characterize that are perspective; that is the roles of language قواعد تحليل علم ألغه
    *In the text: the function of the text, وظيفة النص
    in the event is the text spoken or written حاله كان النص مكتوب او منطوق
    (this is mood )
    *Than we look at the situation in which the text, in the text is used.
    النظر الى حال النص لماذا يستخدم
    * also we look subject matter (what is happening in the event ) what is it that the participant are involved in and we call this field ثم نرى ما هو الحدث ومن هم المشاركون في النص
    * situations of the text
    *Finally, we analyze\ look\ study the communicative purpose ما هو غرض النص
    What is the relations of the participant? And we call this tenor وما هو العلاقة بين المشاركين

    Register
    *In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular social setting
    في اللسانيات : في تنوع السجل الغوي بتنوع المستخدم ووضع المجتمع معين
    * Some prefer to restrict the domain of the term "register" to a specific vocabulary
    البعض يفضل ان يحصره في بعض الكلمات الخاصه
    * In linguistic analysis , different styles of language are technically called register. اختلاف الأنماط التقنية باختلاف السجل الغوي
    Register refers to properties within a language variety that associates that language with a given situation.
    ويشير السجل الغوي الى خصائص متنوعه داخل الغه

    FROM BOOK (1)
    *. The linguist Michael Halliday defines register by emphasizing its semantic patterns and context. For Halliday, register is determined by what is talking place, who is taking part and what part the language is playing
    ان السجل الغوي يعرف من خلال التأكيد على أنماط وسياق ألغه ’ ويحدد من خلال ما يحدث في المكان والمشاركين

    * Halliday places great emphasis on the social context of register and distinguishes register from dialect, which is a variety according to user,
    التركيز الكبير في السياق الاجتماعي للسجل الغه والهجات وهي متنوعه وفقا للمستخدم
    in the sense that each speaker uses one variety and uses it all the time, and not, as is register, a variety according to use, in the sense that each speaker has a range of varieties and chooses between them at different times
    بمعنى تنوع استخدام الغه في المتحدث في كل الأوقات وليس كسجل الغوي والمجموعة المتنوعة وفقا للمستخدم بمعنى ان كل مستخدم لديه مجموعه من الاصناف ويختار بينهما في الأوقات المختلفة
    From book (3)
    History and use
    *The focus is on the way language is used in particular situation, such as legalese or motherese, the language of a biology research lab of a news report, or of the bedroom. ان التركيز على طريقه استخدام الغه في حاله معينه

    *register analysis
    The style perspective focus on the use of linguistic features, but without consider their function in any situation. Rather it examine the esthetic what preference. Use by writers or found in certain.
    ومن جهة التركيز في استخدام المميزات الغوية ,دون التركيز على وظيفتها من أي ناحية, بل دراستها مجمله بالتفصيل, كيفية استخدامها من قبل الكاتب

    We will analysis this
    ((I swear by almighty God that the evidence I will give shall be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.))
    M.AK Halliday and R. Hasan ( 1976) interpret ' register' as the linguistic features wish are typically associated with a configuration of situational features- with particular values of the field mode and tenor.

    *field: for them is the total event, in which the text is functioning, together with the purposive activity of the speaker or writer; includes subject-matter as one of the elements. هو الحدث الكلي في النص ووظيفة أيضا وهدف المتكلم او الكاتب (4)*for Halliday, the field is the activity associated with the language used, in this case a religious oath tailored to the environment of a legal proceeding.
    هو النشاط المرتبط بالغه المستخدمة وفي هذه الحاله القسم الديني مصمم خصيصا لدعوه القانونيه
    *(7) field: what is happening, the nature of the social interaction taking place: what is it that the participants are engaged in, in which language figures as an essential component?
    ما يحدث وطبيعة التفاعل الاجتماعي وبماذا يشارك المشاركين في النص ((باختصار هو لماذا قيل النص او لماذا كتب ))
    What has taken place ( field)
    *mode: id the function of the text in the event, including both the channel taken by language spoken or written, extempore or prepared – and is genre, rhetorical mode, as narrative, didactic. Persuasive. 'plastic communion' etc.
    معرفه وظيفه النص في الحدث, ونوعه بما في ذالك كل ما كان منطوق او مكتوب او معد بشكل ارتجاليا او النمط الخطابي والتعليمية
    *(4) mode is what he refers to as the symbolic organization of the situation (Halliday refers to genre as pre-coded language, language that has not simply been used before, but that predetermines the selection of textual meanings. For instance, in the sentence above the phrase 'the evidence I shall give is preferable to the possible alternatives.
    * (7) Mode: the symbolic organization of text, rhetorical modes (persuasive, expository, didactic, etc) the channel of communication, such as spoken/written, monolgic/ dialogic, visual contact computer-mediated communication/telephone/F2F, etc
    التنظيم الرمزي للنص وسائط البلاغية
    Who has participated (tenor)
    (4)*The tenor of this sentence would refer to the specific role of the participants between whom the statement is made, in this case the person in the witness box proclaiming their intention to be honest before the court and those in attendance
    تشير الى دور محدد من المشاركين وفي حالة القسم الديني يعلن المتحدث على ان يكون صادقن إمام المحكمة والحاضرين
    *The tenor: refers to the type of role interaction, the set of relevant social relations, permanent and temporary among the participants involved. (Register: in M.A,K Halliday and R Hassan is one of the two defining concepts of Text. A text is a passage of discourse which is coherent in these two regards: it is coherent with respect to the context of situation, and therefore consistent in register : and it is coherent with respect to itself, and therefore cohesive.
    (7)*Tenor: who is taking part; the social roles and relationships of participant, the status and roles of the participants
    الأدوار الاجتماعية العلاقات بين المشاركين ومركز الدور لكل مشارك
    What medium has been selected for relaying the massage (mode)
    from book (2,3) * In general terms, a register is a variety a associated with a particular situation of use (including particular communicative particular situation of use (including particular communicative purposes
    How to analysis What kind of text it is ( book , story …….. etc) (6)معرفة نوع النص
    To describe purposive linguistic feature لشرح هدف الميزات الغوية
    1) is important to note the situation characteristics of conversation that distinguish it from other registers. Face to face conversation requires direct interaction between at least two people who are together in the same place at the same time وما يميز المحادثة عن غيرها انها وجهن لوجه ويجب ان يكون هناك تفاعل من قبل شخصين على الأقل من الناس في نفس المكان والزمان
    2) describe the typical (pervasive ) "the common linguistic feature " linguistic feature if conversation
    وصف نوع الهدف المنتشر سمات الغوية في المحادثة
    3) is interpret the relationship between situation characteristics and pervasive linguistic features in functional terms.
    تفسير العلاقة بين خصائص وميزات الغوية من حيث الوظيفة
    when we analyze a text from a genre perspective we examine the
    1) situation of text موضوع النص
    2) purpose الهدف من النص
    3) conventional structure of a text such as (the beginning and ending of a letter)
    In other words the genre perspective does not look on to the linguistic feature of text
    it's mainly ( only) considered with textual stricture
    the style perspective focuses on the use of linguistic feature but without considering their function in a situation
    Rather it examine the aesthetic preferences uses by writers or found on certain periods.
    thus the register could be used to analyze and text.
    Mono = one Di = two tri = three

    why are we have analyzed a text
    1) To understand the differences among a text لاستيعاب الاختلافات داخل النص
    2) To have a better knowledge of a language use. ليكون لدينا معرفه جيده باستخدام ألغه
    3) To be aware of how language is use , how others use a language , and where is we can user it deal a language we can use it and could translate it.

    Q_ what is important thing do when we analyze a text ?
    Thus accordingly the register analysis could be use to analyze any text when we come to analyze a text from a register perspective we must limit our focus of our analyze if we want to analyze the text book of the faculty of languages this is limit it to the text book of department of translation but it is still too wide , so we must limit it to text book of register legal translation etc. عند تحليل النص يجب ان نقصر اهتمامنا وتركيزنا على كتاب واحج في قسم واحد
    The difference between register and dialects
    Register are a variety of a language according to uses , not to user تتنوع طبقان للاستخدام but dialect s are a variety a language a according to user. تتنوع طبقان للمستخدم
    register____________________ use
    dialect -----------------user
    *register are governed by the situation the function of linguistic feature and communicative purpose of a text, register is functional change.
    هو الحكم على حاله وميزه التواصل الغوي والغرض من النص ويغير وظيفة ألغه ومعناها
    * dialect are governed by social or regional factors, social class include working class register factors in clued phonology. Dialect is conventional, don't change the meaning.
    لا يغير معنى الكلمة
    *Dialects: are govern by social of regional factors, social class, include the working class, the elite class the black people they have the own language in this kind of dialect according to social factors تعدد ألهجات بتعدد الطبقات الاجتماعية
    *Regional factors include phonological features like أعوامل الاقليميه تشمل الميزات الصوتية مثل
    Water
    /…………………/ British /…………………/ American (this is dialect
    e.g
    a black man say: you was , we was , he aint and we hear someone say
    I don't have no money ( it is wrong in grammar but in dialect is right)
    but if I say in Arabic
    )ادفئوا المساجين)بلغه قريش تعني أدفئوهم ولكن في لغة أهل نجد تعني ادفنوهم أي اقتلوهم
    this is register because it' s change the meaning so if it change the meaning it is register but if it's not change the meaning it's dialect تغير المعنى الكلمة يعتبر السجل الغوي
    In dialect lexical and grammatical feature and differences but they don't change the meaning.
    for example : If we said :soft, pop- drink , soda- child , kid عدم تغيير المعنى في ألكلمه يعتبر لهجة
    apartment . this is so because this linguistic feature are not functional they are conventional they don't change or effect the meaning but in a register the linguistic feature are functional they change or effect the meaning
    2.2.1 from book
    When we analysis any text from E.g. Sana'a university we should limited the text to faculty and department and to text of register
    نحلل لابد أن نقلص تركيزنا على جزئ محدد من قسم محدد عندما
    1)The register specific
    2)Culture of task
    *How does the culture affect of the meaning voice? كيف توثر الثقافة على المعنى الصوتي e.g
    it the word prayer in our culture when we say I am praying.
    Also in our culture we fast but not like USA fast
    It is not like our praying and fasting when we analyze a variety we must look for register marker
    يتغير معنى ألكلمه بتغير الثقافات ككلمه صوم فصوم عند المسلمين يختلف عن الصوم عن الأديان الأخرى
    *what is a register marker?
    A register marker is specific structure that exists that is found in one register but not in another.
    هي بنيه محدد لا تستخدم الا في حاله واحده فقط ولا يمكن استخدامها في حالات أخرى
    e.g
    سمعت تلاوه جميله
    Register marker
    كلمه تلاوة لا تستخدم إلا مع القرآن ليس لا قراءه أخرى
    شطرنج_____ لا نقول كش ملك لا في حاله واحده فقط وهوregister marker>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
    But cannot be used in another situations so checkmate : is register marker
    *A register marker is while pervasive and frequent تتكرر خلال النص
    أعاده من البداية إلى النهاية
    *Genre marker : are not pervasive and not frequent. لا تظهر في النص مره واحده فقط
    *Genre marker : are pervasive while genre are not and also are register makers are frequent but genre maker are not frequent.
    *Register marker are occur many times in variety while genre markers are occur once.
    *genre markers only use once if it repeat is a register marker.
    إي انه ------------------- وتقال مره واحده ولا تعاد مره أخرى
    *register features are functional but genre is not functional
    e.g
    All rise, have you reached a verdict?
    We find the defendant ___________
    e.g. Dear Sir----------, the one beginning and one ending used to begin with message. ……………………………….
    Heavenly father ---------------------يا الهي
    بالله / مناشده --------------- Appeal
    Amen ------------------- أمين
    بعد الدعاء لا تقول لا مره واحده
    e.g.
    Best wishes, she's, sincerely, talk to you latter, used to end an e-mail massage
    *style feature are pervasive.
    From book(16)
    What is a genre marker?
    Genre marker should be distinguished from both register feature and register marker
    Genre markers are the distinctive expressions and devices that are used to structure a text from a particular genre
    Genre markers are not pervasive wall register marker are pervasive
    Read page 18
    Form book (19)
    Arabic
    Modern standard Arabic standard language in use today
    Classical Arabic of the Qur'an and early Islam
    Standard Arabic the literary and stand register
    Code-switching : when we change from modern standard to classical to standard Arabic
    $-I f there is a question in exam about Arabic we should writing the divided and our opinion
    …………………
    How does culture effect كيف توثر الثقافة على المعنى الو ضيفي في السليب
    Difference in culture means difference in language اختلاف الغه تاتي من اختلاف الثقافات
    Culture effect the language
    For example : "fasting " in waster culture has a different function from that in the Easter culture. We can translate "fasting in to صيام in both culture has the same word and meaning but it has different function ((why))? We have different culture

    That is to say, culture use language different since culture uses language different the function.
    e.g
    fasting we consider translate and we translate it to صيام

    Does it have the same function in both culture? No. Why? Because it has different situation
    What is register?
    It is something that is used in specific situation so register in general use language in particular a situation in the culture
    fasting waster has a different function from that in the Easter function we can translate fasting to syame صيام
    Why?
    Because it has different culture and different situation بسبب اختلاف الثقافات واختلاف t contraction
    But in English they have only …………………وعظه advice, so , they have different function


    العبادة worship

    Prayer (صلاه )) fasting (صيام ) alms giving (زكاه) provocation Appeal (دعاء)
    Worship
    *Worship could have sub register which are prayer, fasting, alms giving, provocation. To mention a few. In Islamic culture "provocation " is one of the basic for worship God, but in waster culture "provocation" is not a part of worship God. So, worship God is different function in waster that from Islamic culture
    *Sermon
    *Sermon: waster is different between from sermon in Arabic culture a sermon in Arabic culuter starts with a tafser then …………….. وعظه
    How we translate sermon in Arabic?
    Sermon is Islamic culture start with a tafser then ------------- وعظ but is Islam has Quran and Hadeeth
    What is the tafser?
    It is that Al-shakh a Quran verse or hafeeth them he explain the meaning of it.
    ------------ وعظ to relate ----------وعظه with tafser and here. Al-Shakh leads people to follow the teaching of Islamic relation to Quran is verse or Hadeeth but in English they have only ------------alive, so they have different function.
    What is the element if sermon?
    There is a different between a sermon in waster culture and sermon in Islamic Easter culture? How and why?
    A sermon in Islamic culture started with tafesr then ------------- that shakh
    Examples for different registers in different cultures:
    *W….rqad
    In somalian culture "………………………." Means a personal letters but the differences is this
    In waster culture a personal letters tells the address
    صومالي (( personal letter))
    In semolina culture --------- means a personal letters but the difference is this: in waster culture a personal letters tells the addressee things about the writer personal life, but is Somalia culture ----------- give the addressee directive and sakes from the addressee different things, so, ------------- is different register because It has different function in culture
    In secluding we can say that a culture effect the function and meaning if a register, that is the above examples: confirm that "sermon" in Islamic culture is different form "sermon" in waster culture is different personal letter from American culture the same for "conversation" because the function is different from register to another.

    What is Hallidays said about translation?
    He said : translation stages with three things:
    1) Item- for item: when we star with item for item equivalence.
    2) We consider the situation : the context of the text
    3) We consider the linguistic feature of the target language
    *morpheme : is the smallest linguistic unit of a language
    There are two types for morpheme :
    1) Free morpheme
    2) Bound morpheme <<<<<< divided in to two types
    a) In flexional
    b) Derivational
    • Free morpheme: is that morpheme which stand alone = it has a meanings
    e,x happy – girl - man – boy
    • Bound morpheme : they are those morphemes that can not stand alone by themselves and it divided in to two types
    a) In flexional : play (v) >>>>>> plays (v) >>>>>>>>> it doesn't change the part of speech / classification / class of word
    b) Play still verb even we add (s) to it
    c) Derivational : ex. man (n) >>>>> manly (a dj) it changes the classification of the word man: when we add (ly) it change from noun to adjective

    In respect of the register variables field, tenor , mode
    In translation Halliday emphasize the importance of contexts in deciding the "value different " strain" levels ( text – paragraph- essay- …. Etc) as guideline for translators to follow, he stipulates what can be seen as " a principle of hierarchy of values when he observes that .
    Equivalence at different strata carries differential values:
    (1) Lexica grammatical
    Higher
    (2) semantic equivalence
    higher
    (3)contextual equivalence
    In other hand: when we translate you might start with (lexica grammatical method and they ( moved semantic ) than end with (contextual translation)
    * lexica grammatical translation : word by word translation and don't change grammar the source language and keep words
    * semantic: translate meaning
    * contextual: according to the situation
    When we translate : we use literal translation semantic translation context translation in one text ( the best one is context translation )
    Example of lexica grammatical translation
    Went Ahmed to school ذهب احمد الى المدرسه
    In Arabic sentence is grammatically correct but in English sentence is grammatical false , so we do mode frication to the sentence of the end the sentence become (Ahmed went to school)
    This sentence is equivalence to Arabic sentence, when we omit the in order to follow the grammatical rules of target structure
    *register : analysis : is the most comprehensive frame work proposed for the characterization of context of al language .
    *we have framework : any text. Characterization of context of languages
    The framework is ( legal) you translated to law in this law we will find something about marking and medicine ….etc. all these are in legal text
    * the less ruibles………… in the text the easier it will be to translated
    كلما قل تنوع النص كلما كانت الترجمة أسهل وأفضل
    Although, At theend of sentence احمد ذهب إلى المدرسة
    But these relatives values always be varied depends on text also we can see use three previous methods when we translate
    Haliday
    • a good translation which describe the most equivalent of source text into target text in respect of these linguistic features of source text which are most valued in the given translation context and perhaps also in respect of the value which is assigned to the original (source language ) text

    نقره لتكبير أو تصغير الصورة ونقرتين لعرض الصورة في صفحة مستقلة بحجمها الطبيعي
    بس وش لي في حلاتك دام فيهـا ترخصيـن
    حشمة البنـت وحياهـا والكرامـة يلفتـون

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